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Momentum Oscillator Trading Strategies Price Action Trading Strategies
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Time-Weighted Average Price Trading Strategies

Time-weighted average price (TWAP) is an indicator used as part of an algorithm by traders and investors to execute large orders in the market without significantly affecting the market price. In this article, we will provide an overview of TWAP and how it works, as well as provide tips on how to effectively use TWAP in your own trading strategies. We will also discuss some of its advantages and disadvantages. Whether you are a seasoned trader or just getting started, understanding TWAP can help you make better-informed trading decisions and improve your overall performance in the markets.

What Is the Time-Weighted Average Price?

The TWAP is a trading indicator that measures the average price of an asset over a specific time period. It is calculated by taking the total value of all trades made during the time period and dividing it by the total trading volume over that period. The result is the average price of the asset over that time period.

TWAP is commonly used in algorithmic trading because it provides a way to execute trades over a longer time period, without causing significant price movements in the asset being traded. By executing trades at a constant rate over the specified time period, the algorithm can minimize the impact of its trading on the market, and reduce the risk of being front-run or adversely impacted by market volatility.


TWAP differs from VWAP (Volume-Weighted Average Price) in that VWAP takes into account the volume of trades at each price point during the specified time period. This means that the VWAP calculation places greater weight on prices with higher trading volume. VWAP is commonly used as a benchmark for institutional traders, who aim to execute their trades at or near the VWAP price, in order to minimize market impact. However, VWAP can be subject to manipulation by large orders or liquidity imbalances, while TWAP is less vulnerable to such market forces.

Time-Weighted Average Price Trading Strategies

Here are some examples of TWAP trading strategies:

TWAP-Based Algorithm Strategy

The most common strategy using the TWAP is in an order execution algorithm. When using the TWAP algorithm, there are several factors that traders need to consider to optimize their trades:

  1. Time Period: The first step in using the TWAP algorithm is to determine the time period over which the order will be executed. The time period should be long enough to minimize the impact on the market but not so long that the trader is exposed to excessive risk. The appropriate time period will depend on the size of the order and the liquidity of the market.
  2. Order Size: The trader must also decide on the size of each individual order. Smaller orders are less likely to move the market and can be executed more quickly. However, too many small orders can increase transaction costs, so there is a trade-off between order size and market impact.
  3. Liquidity: The liquidity of the market is an important consideration when using the TWAP algorithm. A highly liquid market can handle large orders without significant market impact, while a less liquid market may experience significant price movements as a result of a large order.
  4. Market Conditions: The trader must also consider the current market conditions when using the TWAP algorithm. For example, if the market is volatile, it may be better to execute the order more quickly to minimize risk.

To implement the TWAP algorithm, the trader will need to use a trading platform or software that supports algorithmic trading. The trader will input the details of the order, including the time period, order size, and other parameters, and the software will execute the trades automatically over the specified time period.

TWAP Trend Identification Strategy

In this strategy, the TWAP helps traders identify the direction of the trend. If a trader is looking to enter a long position, they may look for the price to be trading above the TWAP as a sign of an uptrend. On the other hand, if a trader is looking to enter a short position, they may look for the price to be trading below the TWAP as a sign of a downtrend.

One of the benefits of using the TWAP for trend identification is that it provides a smoothed-out view of the market, which can help to filter out some of the short-term noise in the price action. However, it’s important to note that the TWAP is just one tool in a trader’s toolbox and should be used in conjunction with other indicators and analysis methods.

TWAP Raindrop Chart Strategy

In this strategy, the TWAP is plotted on a Raindrop chart. A Raindrop chart is TrendSpider’s proprietary type of chart that combines price action, volume, and sentiment into a simple and powerful chart visualization. Using the TWAP on a Raindrop chart will give it a volume-weighted effect, which will make the calculation slightly different.

Additionally, you can change the price source from an average of the open, high, low, and close to an average of the open and close. This will produce a purely volume-based TWAP because rather than using the open and close price, it will use the sum of the average VWAP of the first and second halves of the period as seen on Raindrop charts.

Pros and Cons of the Time-Weighted Average Price

Here are some potential advantages and limitations of TWAP:


  1. Reduced market impact: TWAP execution can help reduce the impact of large orders on the market, as it executes trades at a constant rate over a specified time period, which can minimize price movements and help the trader avoid adverse price impact.
  2. Consistency: TWAP execution can be used to create a predictable trading strategy, as it enables traders to execute trades at a consistent pace over a specified period of time.
  3. Flexibility: TWAP can be customized to execute trades over any time period, from a few minutes to several hours, depending on the trader’s preference.
  4. Simplicity: TWAP is a relatively simple algorithm that is easy to understand and implement, which makes it popular among traders.


  1. Limited control: Since the algorithm is pre-programmed to execute trades at a constant rate over a specified time period, the trader has limited control over the execution of trades.
  2. Unpredictable market conditions: Market conditions can be unpredictable, and the TWAP strategy may not always work well in volatile or rapidly changing markets.
  3. Inaccurate data: TWAP calculations can be impacted by inaccurate or incomplete data, leading to inaccurate trade execution.
  4. Lagging indicator: TWAP is a lagging indicator, meaning that it relies on past price data to make trading decisions, which can be a disadvantage in fast-moving markets.

Overall, TWAP can be an effective trading strategy in the right market conditions, but traders should be aware of its limitations and use it in conjunction with other trading strategies to optimize their results.

Example scanners and strategies that use Time-Weighted Average Price

Time-weighted average price can be used in both Scanning the market and Testing Strategies. To see how exactly it can be used in these ways, we provide the following samples. The scanner searches the market for stocks using this indicator, and the strategy tests buying and selling rules built around this indicator.

"TWAP Scan" scanner by TrendSpider
“TWAP Scan” scanner by TrendSpider
"TWAP Strategy #Marketplace" strategy by TrendSpider
“TWAP Strategy #Marketplace” strategy by TrendSpider

The Bottom Line

In conclusion, the time-weighted average price is an important indicator in finance that is used to measure the average price of a security over a specific period of time. TWAP is commonly used by institutional investors who need to execute large trades without causing market disruptions or excessive price movements. By using TWAP, investors can ensure that their trades are executed at a fair price, without undue impact on the market. While there are other methods for measuring average prices, TWAP remains a popular and effective tool for investors looking to optimize their trading strategies.


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